洁净煤技术

2020, v.26;No.130(06) 237-242

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循环流化床机组环保参数异常原因分析与对策
Cause analysis and countermeasure research on environmental protection parameter abnormity of CFB Unit

杜佳军;张鹏;韩新建;
DU Jiajun;ZHANG Peng;HAN Xinjian;Shenhua Group CFB Technology R&D Center;

摘要(Abstract):

近年来,随着大气污染物排放标准要求的日益严格,大部分循环流化床(CFB)机组增设了炉外脱硫脱硝设施,并采用炉内炉外联合的方式控制污染物排放浓度。但由于CFB锅炉自身热惯性大、炉内脱硫滞后等特性,以及关键设备故障、运行调整控制不佳等原因,在机组启停及运行中易出现环保参数异常而影响其安全环保运行。在探讨CFB机组污染物控制工艺及技术路线基础上,分析了污染物原始排放关键影响因素及脱除工艺要点,研究了SO_2、NO_x及烟尘异常现象及导致原因,从设备故障、运行调整及自动控制、启停机等方面提出了解决对策。研究表明,CFB机组SO_2异常主要原因是燃煤硫分变化大、煤仓堵煤及回料器返料不畅等,NO_x异常通常是机组启停中SNCR脱硝效率低等导致,而CEMS系统故障是烟尘异常的关键原因。针对机组环保参数异常问题,通过强化燃煤煤质及掺配管理降低污染物排放浓度波动,采用煤仓防堵技术等措施解决堵煤问题,消除机组升降负荷中回料器返料不畅现象,加强污染物控制及监测系统维护提升可靠性,优化自动控制增加污染物预估逻辑和前馈,设置不同负荷段AGC调节速率及自动闭锁等,可有效避免机组运行中环保参数异常;同时,机组启停中还可采用消石灰作为脱硫剂、烟气再循环控制氧量等,进一步减少机组环保参数异常现象。
In recent years,with the increasingly strict requirements of air pollutant emission standards,most circulating fluidized bed units have added with desulfurization and denitrification facilities outside the furnace,and the combined mode of inside and outside the furnace is used to control pollutant emission concentration.However,due to the the characteristics of CFB boiler such as high thermal inertia and desulphurization lagging in furnace,the key equipment failures and poor operation adjustment control,abnormal environmental parameters are easy to occur in the start-up and shutdown of the unit,which will affect its safety and environmental protection operation.Based on the discussion of the pollutant control process and technical route of CFB Unit,the key influencing factors of pollutant original emission and the key points of removal process were analyzed,the abnormal phenomena and causes of SO_2,NO_x and soot were studied,and the countermeasures were put forward from the aspects of equipment failure,operation adjustment,automatic control,start-up and shutdown of the unit.The results show that the abnormal SO_2 of CFB unit is mainly caused by the large change of sulfur content in coal,coal blockage in coal bunker and poor return of material from the feeder,etc.The abnormal NOxis usually caused by low SNCR denitration efficiency during unit startup and shutdown,and CEMS system failure is the key reason for abnormal soot.Aiming at the abnormal environmental parameters,measures such as reducing the fluctuation of pollutant discharge concentration by strengthening the coal-burning quality and admixture management,using the anti-blocking technology of coal bin to solve the problem of coal blockage,eliminating the inconvenience of returner in unit load-lifting,strengthening the maintenance of pollutant control and monitoring system,automatically increasing the logic and feed-forward of pollutant estimation,setting the AGC adjustment rate and automatic blocking in different load sections,can effectively avoid abnormal environmental parameters in unit operation. In the start-up and shutdown of the unit,lime can be used as desulfurizer and flue gas recirculation can be used to control oxygen content,so as to further reduce the abnormal environmental parameters of the unit.

关键词(KeyWords): CFB锅炉;环保参数;异常分析;对策研究
CFB boiler;environmental protection parameters;anomaly analysis;countermeasure research

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划资助项目(2016YFB0600202)

作者(Author): 杜佳军;张鹏;韩新建;
DU Jiajun;ZHANG Peng;HAN Xinjian;Shenhua Group CFB Technology R&D Center;

Email:

DOI: 10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.19120202

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