洁净煤技术

2020, v.26;No.130(06) 1-10

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煤气化灰渣脱碳技术研究进展
Research progress of the decarburization technology of coal gasification ash slag

史达;张建波;杨晨年;曲江山;李少鹏;李会泉;何发钰;
SHI Da;ZHANG Jianbo;YANG Chennian;QU Jiangshan;LI Shaopeng;LI Huiquan;HE Fayu;School of Resources and Civil Engineering,Northeastern University;Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering,Institute of Process Engineering,Chinese Academy of Science;National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology;University of Chinese Academy of Science;China Minmetals Corporation;

摘要(Abstract):

煤气化技术是我国现代煤化工的基础,该过程将煤中有机物转化为化学品,无机物以气化灰渣形式外排。目前煤气化灰渣主要以堆存为主,造成严重的环境和水体污染。在对煤气化灰渣进行消纳处理过程中,因内部含有大量的未燃碳,使其在建工建材等规模化利用途径受限。当前的国内外碳、灰分选方法虽有一定的效果,但基本处于实验室研究和半工业试验阶段,因存在成本高、分选效率低等问题,未能实现大规模工业化应用。碳灰分选效果受煤气化灰渣的矿相组成、物相成分、粒度分布、微观形貌等因素影响,不同类型气化渣需要采取不同的分选工艺,进而实现碳灰的高效分离。结合煤气化灰渣脱碳的主要影响因素,分析了煤气化灰渣脱碳的主要工艺技术和装备,多角度阐述了煤气化灰渣碳、灰组分的主要分离方法,并进一步总结对比各分选方法的工艺特点和不足。分析了各技术在煤气化灰渣脱碳分选应用的发展趋势,指明了研发绿色、高效、低成本的新型浮选药剂,解决煤气化灰渣灰分吸附罩盖问题,开发针对细粒级煤气化灰渣脱碳的分选工艺与装备,实现脱碳分选产品的高值化利用,是当前煤气化灰渣脱碳技术的重要发展方向。
Coal gasification technology is the foundation of modern coal chemical industry in China.In this process,the organic matter in coal is converted into chemicals,and the inorganic matter is discharged in the form of gasification slag.At present,coal gasification slag is mainly stored in piles,causing serious environmental and water pollution.In the process of dissipating coal gasification slag,because of the large amount of unburned carbon inside,the large-scale utilization channels such as construction materials and building materials are limited.Although the current carbon and ash separation methods at home and abroad have certain effects,they are basically in the stage of laboratory research and semi-industrial testing.Due to the problems of high cost and low separation efficiency,large-scale industrial applications have not been realized.The separation of carbon ash is affected by the mineral phase composition,phase composition,particle size distribution,micro-morphology and other factors of coal gasification slag.Different types of gasification slag need to adopt different separation processes to achieve efficient separation of carbon and ash.Combined with the main influencing factors of coal gasification slag decarburization,the main technology and equipment of coal gasification slag decarbonization were analyzed,the main separation methods of carbon and ash components of coal gasification slag were expounded from multiple angles,and the technological characteristics and shortcomings of each sorting method were further Summarized and compared.Finally,the development trend of various technologies in the decarbonization and separation of coal gasification slag was analyzed,and the development of new green,efficient,and low-cost flotation reagents was pointed out to solve the problem of unburned carbon-ash adsorption cover.The separation technology and equipment for the decarbonization of granular coal gasification slag and the realization of high-value utilization of decarbonization separation products is an important development direction of current coal gasification slag decarbonization technology.

关键词(KeyWords): 煤气化灰渣;脱碳;浮选;分离;资源化利用
coal gasification slag;decarbonization;flotation;separation;resource utilization

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划资助项目(2019YFC1904302);; 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51804293,U1810205);; 固废资源化利用与节能建材国家重点实验室开放基金资助项目(SWR-2019-005);; 中石化合作企业横向资助项目(419035-3)

作者(Author): 史达;张建波;杨晨年;曲江山;李少鹏;李会泉;何发钰;
SHI Da;ZHANG Jianbo;YANG Chennian;QU Jiangshan;LI Shaopeng;LI Huiquan;HE Fayu;School of Resources and Civil Engineering,Northeastern University;Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering,Institute of Process Engineering,Chinese Academy of Science;National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology;University of Chinese Academy of Science;China Minmetals Corporation;

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DOI: 10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.EP20082501

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