洁净煤技术

2020, v.26;No.130(06) 23-33

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粉煤灰在涂料中的应用研究进展
Research progress of application of fly ash in coatings

唐明秀;宋慧平;薛芳斌;
TANG Mingxiu;SONG Huiping;XUE Fangbin;State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization Technology of Coal Waste Resources,Institute of Resources and Environment Engineering,Shanxi University;

摘要(Abstract):

粉煤灰是火电厂燃煤产生的废渣,长期堆置不处理会危害人体和自然环境。由于粉煤灰自身结构及具有火山灰效应、充填效应等特点,可作为二次资源再次利用。我国作为粉煤灰排放大国,一直在积极寻找更多的有效利用粉煤灰的途径,提高粉煤灰的利用率。近年来,随着涂料行业的发展,对填料的需求逐渐增加,国内外需要合适的填料替代品来降低涂料成本。不少学者将粉煤灰作为原料应用于涂料行业,根据粉煤灰性质制作各种功能性涂料,发现性能与经济效果良好。介绍了粉煤灰的产生及其带来的环境问题、粉煤灰的基本特点,并根据涂料功能进行分类。重点阐述了各类涂料主要原理、工艺及产品的性能评价,综述了国内外粉煤灰在涂料行业的研究进展,总结了目前粉煤灰在涂料行业应用中存在的主要问题。粉煤灰的低导热性符合热量阻隔机理,且可与其他隔热型材料结合,形成反射热量、阻隔热量等多隔热机理共同作用的保温涂层,涂覆于墙体表面提高隔热效果;粉煤灰理化性质稳定且耐高温,其耐火性质可以使粉煤灰在阻燃涂料中充当抑烟剂、阻燃剂,适用于钢结构、木材表面和隧道内部墙面等的防火处理;粉煤灰具有胶凝效应,与其他物质作用可以增强材料密实度,并引入电化学机理提高抗腐蚀能力,用于水泥、金属等表面减轻受腐蚀程度;通过对粉煤灰活化、改性以及和结晶材料结合,形成更加紧密的涂层,抗渗透防水能力优异;粉煤灰与悬浮剂、分散剂、黏结剂混合,能够作为铸造涂料涂刷在铸件表面保护铸件、改善成型效果及利于脱模;外加聚合物乳液、水泥与改性剂,增加粉煤灰与煤层结合强度,开拓了作为井下矿道封堵涂料的能力,致密的涂层有效防止井下瓦斯危险气体的泄漏。以粉煤灰为原料,通过多种工艺制备了不同类型的功能涂料,降低了原材料的经济成本,废弃资源得以再次利用。虽然粉煤灰在涂料行业已取得较多进展,但由于技术限制,还存在一些问题,粉煤灰作为涂料填料存在的色度、残碳和利用率等问题仍是下一步研究的重点。
Fly ash is a kind of waste residue produced by coal-fired power plant. If it is not treated for a long time,it will harm human body and natural environment. Because of its own structure,pozzolanic effect and filling effect,fly ash can be used as secondary resource again. As a big fly ash emission country,China has been actively looking for more effective ways to use fly ash to improve the utilization rate of fly ash. In recent years,with the development of the coating industry,the demand for fillers is gradually increasing,and appropriate filler substitutes are needed at home and abroad to reduce the cost of coatings. Many scholars have used fly ash as raw material in the coating industry. According to the properties of fly ash,various functional coatings have been made and found to have good performance and economic effect. In this paper,the production of fly ash and its environmental problems,the basic characteristics of fly ash was introduced,and the coatings according to their functions were classified. The main principle,technology and product performance evaluation of various coatings were mainly described. The research progress of fly ash in coating industry at home and abroad was summarized. The main problems existing in the application of fly ash in coating industry were summarized. The results show that the low thermal conductivity of fly ash conforms to the heat barrier mechanism,and it can be combined with other thermal insulation materials to form a thermal insulation coating with multiple heat insulation mechanisms such as reflecting heat and blocking heat,which can be applied on the wall surface to improve the heat insulation effect. The physical and chemical properties of fly ash are stable and high temperature resistant,and its fire resistance can make fly ash act as smoke suppressor and flame retardant in flame retardant coatings,which is suitable for fire protection treatment of steel structure,wood surface and tunnel inner wall; fly ash has cementation effect,which can enhance the density of materials by interaction with other materials,and introduce electrochemical mechanism to improve the corrosion resistance,which can be used to reduce the corrosion degree of cement,metal and other surfaces; through the activation and modification of fly ash and the combination with crystalline materials,a more compact structure is formed,which has excellent resistance to penetration and waterproofing. Fly ash mixed with suspending agent,dispersant and binder can be used as a casting coating to protect castings on casting surface,so as to improve molding effect and facilitate demoulding. Polymer emulsion,cement and modifier are added to increase the bonding strength of coal ash and coal seam,thus opening up the ability of plugging coating as underground mine,and the compact coating effectively prevent the leakage of dangerous gas underground. Using fly ash as raw material,different types of functional coatings prepared by various processes,which the economic cost of raw materials is reduced and the waste resources are reused. Although fly ash has made more progress in the coating industry,there are still some problems due to technical limitations. The color,residual carbon and utilization rate of fly ash as coating filler are still the focus of the next research.

关键词(KeyWords): 粉煤灰;涂料;资源化利用;功能化;工艺流程
fly ash;coating;resource utilization;functionalization;process flow

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51874194);; 山西省应用基础研究计划面上青年基金资助项目(201801D221327);; 2020年山西省研究生教育创新项目(202008)

作者(Author): 唐明秀;宋慧平;薛芳斌;
TANG Mingxiu;SONG Huiping;XUE Fangbin;State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization Technology of Coal Waste Resources,Institute of Resources and Environment Engineering,Shanxi University;

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DOI: 10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.EP20063002

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