洁净煤技术

2020, v.26;No.128(04) 31-39

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燃煤电厂粉煤灰综合利用现状及发展建议
Comprehensiveutilization situation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants and its development suggestions

姜龙;
JIANG Long;North China Electric Power Research Institute Co.,Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

我国电力能源以煤炭为主,每年燃煤电厂因燃煤产生的粉煤灰为6亿t,约占世界粉煤灰总产量的一半,而目前我国粉煤灰综合利用率仅为70%。为全面了解我国粉煤灰综合利用现状并改善我国粉煤灰综合利用情况,介绍了国内外粉煤灰综合利用的基本情况、相关标准、相关政策及主要利用途径,通过对比国内外利用现状,分别从利用途径、标准制定、政策制定3方面提出我国今后粉煤灰综合利用的合理化建议。我国粉煤灰综合利用率同世界平均水平持平,但由于产量大、分布不均匀、已有能源政策等造成我国在粉煤灰综合利用中主要存在传统建材需求萎缩、季节性影响、政策缺少引导并无强制利用、标准体系不完善、高附加值利用占比低等问题:我国粉煤灰主要应用在建材行业,与其他发达国家相比,在道路方面、矿坑回填方面的应用率偏低,其中西部地区由于燃煤电厂分布广泛、建材行业需求降低造成粉煤灰综合利用远低于全国水平;我国在粉煤灰方面制定的标准所涉及的指标范围和指标限值同国外发达国家相比偏松,涉及领域多为传统的建材和基建,并不能很好地指导粉煤灰在其他领域的应用;现有相关政策大多是鼓励利用粉煤灰,缺乏强制性,同时政策上无法有效提高产灰企业的主观能动性。为了更好推进我国粉煤灰的综合利用,结合自身国情且与发达国家现状对比,今后应主要从以下方面入手:加大我国粉煤灰在基建、填充、农业、环保、高附加值等方面的应用,推进西部地区粉煤灰在填埋和农业的应用;完善各利用途径的标准,在标准制定中应体现我国自身的特殊性并优先制定适用本地区粉煤灰利用的标准;我国粉煤灰利用对政策的依存度过高,因此政策内容应对产灰企业进行详细的政策引导从而提高产灰企业的治灰主观能动性,提高粉煤灰的综合利用率,提高固废利用信息的透明度,加强粉煤灰综合利用的社会监督。
Coal is the main energy source of electric power in China.600 million tons of fly ash is produced in hte coal-fired power plant of China produces every year,accounting for half of the world's total output of fly ash.The comprehensive utilization rate of fly ash in China is only 70%.In order to fully understand the comprehensive utilization of fly ash in China and improve the comprehensive utilization of fly ash in China,the main utilization situation,relevant standards,relevant laws and policies,and main utilization ways of fly ash at home and abroad were introduced.By comparing the utilization status at home and abroad,the rationalization suggestions of comprehensive utilization of fly ash in China in the future were put forward from three aspects: utilization ways,standard formulation,laws and regulations.The comprehensive utilization rate of fly ash in China is the same as the world average level,but there are some problems in the comprehensive utilization of fly ash in China due to the large output,uneven distribution and existing national energy policies,such as shrinking demand for traditional building materials,seasonal effects,lack of guidance and no compulsory use of policies,imperfect standard system,low proportion of high value-added utilization,etc.Fly ash is mainly used in building materials industry in China. Compared with other developed countries,its application rate in road and mine backfilling is relatively low.Due to the wide distribution of coal-fired power plants and the demand reduction of building materials industry in the western region of China,the comprehensive utilization of fly ash is far lower than the national water level.The index range and limit value of China's standard on fly ash are relatively loose than those of foreign countries,and most of the fields involved are traditional building materials and infrastructure construction,which cannot guide the application of fly ash in other fields well.Most of the existing relevant policies are to encourage the use of fly ash,which is lack of mandatory,and the content of policies cannot effectively improve the subjective initiative of the ash production enterprises.In order to better promote the comprehensive utilization of fly ash in China,we should start from the following aspects in the future combined with own national conditions and compared with the current situation of developed countries: increase the application of fly ash in construction,filling,agriculture,environmental protection and high value-added utilization; promote the application of fly ash in landfill and agriculture in the western region of China; improve the standards of various utilization ways,which should reflect our own particularity of our country in the standard formulation and give priority to the formulation of local standards; the current utilization of fly ash in China depends too much on the policy,so the policy content should guide the ash production enterprises in detail,so as to improve the subjective initiative of ash treatment of ash producing enterprises; increase the policy of compulsory utilization of fly ash; improve the transparency of solid waste utilization information,and strengthen the social supervision of comprehensive utilization of fly ash.

关键词(KeyWords): 燃煤电厂;粉煤灰;综合利用;标准体系
coal-fired power plant;fly ash;comprehensive utilization;standard system

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家电网华北电科院自有基金资助项目(KJJ2019040)

作者(Author): 姜龙;
JIANG Long;North China Electric Power Research Institute Co.,Ltd.;

Email:

DOI: 10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.F19062501

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