洁净煤技术

2019, (04) 52-58

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山西煤用于干粉气流床气化的煤质适应性研究
Coal quality adaptability of Shanxi coal used in dry powder entrained-bed gasification

张凝凝;邵徇;
ZHANG Ningning,SHAO Xun

摘要(Abstract):

与气化炉匹配的煤质条件会保证气化炉的平稳运行,提高气化炉的气化效率。为提高干粉气流床气化炉的气化效率,本文结合干粉气流床气化用煤的技术要求及煤炭质量分级等相关标准,对山西大同煤田的弱黏煤和沁水煤田的贫煤、无烟煤的煤质特征进行分析评价,开展山西煤用于干粉气流床气化的煤质适应性研究。结果表明:山西地区煤种丰富,其中可气化用煤主要分布在大同煤田和沁水煤田。地处大同煤田的虎龙沟煤、小峪煤和地处沁水煤田的润东煤的灰分较高,干基灰分分别为31. 81%、35. 59%和42. 17%;煤气化时煤中硫主要以H_2S形式存在于煤气中,小部分残存于灰渣中,含硫化合物会腐蚀煤气运输管道,大同煤田金庄煤的全硫含量较高,干基全硫高达2. 10%;从煤炭有害元素含量分级来看,山西气化用煤的氟、氯、砷、汞和磷含量普遍较低,但润东煤的氟含量较高,干基氟含量高达235μg/g,煤炭气化过程中,高温下煤中氟分解为HF及少量Si F4、CF4等进入煤气中,因此有必要在气化前通过分选达到降灰、降硫和降氟的目的。山西气化用煤大多为中高灰熔融性温度煤,润东煤ST为1 340℃,其余煤的ST、FT均大于1 500℃。煤灰黏温特性试验结果表明,灰黏度为25 Pa·s时,虎龙沟煤灰对应的温度为1 445℃,小峪煤、同忻煤和塔山煤灰对应温度分别为1 630、1 645和1 605℃。从灰渣形态看,虎龙沟煤的灰渣形态为玻璃渣,小峪煤、同忻煤和塔山煤的灰渣形态为结晶渣,用于气流床气化时可能导致温度操作区间范围窄,因此建议采用通过添加助熔剂、配煤或分选手段达到改善熔渣渣型的目的。
The coal quality conditions matched with the gasifier can make the the gasifier running smoothly and improve the gasification efficiency of gasifier.To improve gasification efficiency of dry powder gasifier,based on the technical requirements of dry powder entrained-bed gasification and relevant standards for coal quality classification,the coal quality characteristics of weakly caking coal in Shanxi Datong coalfield and lean coal and anthracite in Shanxi Qinshui coalfield were scientifically analyzed and evaluated.Coal quality adaptability of Shanxi coal used in dry powder entrained-bed gasification was studied.The results show that the coal in Shanxi is rich,and the coal in Shanxi for gasification is mainly distributed in Datong coalfield and Qinshui coalfield.The ash content of Hulonggou coal and Xiaoyu coal in Datong coalfield,Rundong coal in Qinshui coalfield are higher,and the dry-base ash content are 31.81%,35.59% and 42.17%,respectively.In coal gasification,the sulfur in coal is mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide in gas,and a small part of sulfur remained in the ash.The sulfur-containing compounds would corrode gas transportation pipelines.The sulfur of Jinzhuang coal in Datong coalfield is relatively high,and the total sulfur content of dry base is up to 2.10%.From the classification of harmful elements in coal,the content of fluorine,chlorine,arsenic,mercury and phosphorus in coal for gasification in Shanxi is generally low,however the dry fluorine content of Rundong coal is relatively high,and the fluorine content of dry-base reaches up to 235 μg/g.At high temperatures tche fluorine in coal is decomposed into HF and a small amount of SiF4,CF4,etc.into the gas in coal gasification process.Therefore,it is necessary to reduce ash,sulfur and fluorine by washing processing before gasification.The most of Shanxi coal for gasification in the study were the medium and high ash fusion temperature coal,the softening temperature (ST) of Rundong coal was 1 340 ℃,and the ST and flow temperature (FT) of the remaining coal were all higher than 1 500 ℃.From the test results of the viscosity and temperature characteristics of coal ash,when the ash viscosity is 25 Pa·s,the corresponding temperature of Hulonggou coal ash is 1 445 ℃,and the corresponding temperatures of Xiaoyu coal ash,Tongxin coal ash and Tashan coal ash are 1 630 ℃,1 645 ℃ and 1 605 ℃,respectively.From the form of ash slag,the slag type of Hulonggou coal is glass slag,while the slag type of Xiaoyu coal,Tongxin coal and Tashan coal are crystal slag.The range of temperature operation may be narrow when the coal is used in entrained-bed gasification.Therefore,it is suggested that the slag viscosity can be changed by adding cosolvent,blending coal or washing processing.

关键词(KeyWords): 气流床气化;煤质适应性;山西煤;大同煤田;沁水煤田
entrained-bed gasification;coal quality adaptability;Shanxi coal;Datong coalfield;Qinshui coalfield

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作者(Author): 张凝凝;邵徇;
ZHANG Ningning,SHAO Xun

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