洁净煤技术

2019, v.25;No.124(06) 88-95

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微生物降解煤产腐植酸及应用研究进展
Research progress and application in microbial degradation of coal to produce humic acid

衡曦彤;程娟;何环;曹清河;李成果;
HENG Xitong;CHENG Juan;HE Huan;CAO Qinghe;LI Chengguo;School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,China University of Mining and Technology;Xuzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences;Xuzhou Kuaibang Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

腐植酸是一种天然有机高分子混合物,广泛存在于自然界中,其中低阶煤矿物如褐煤、风化煤中含有丰富的腐植酸。介绍了我国矿物源腐植酸资源储备、区域分布、种类和性质,将传统的理化加工腐植酸方法与微生物法处理腐植酸进行对比,结合近年来微生物处理低阶煤矿物的现状,总结出可以降解低阶煤生产腐植酸的微生物种类(以放线菌、细菌和真菌为主)以及共培养的菌剂。阐述了矿物源腐植酸广泛的生产应用性,腐植酸作为土壤改良剂可以固定土壤中的重金属离子,吸附和促进降解农药、多环芳烃等有机物,减少重金属在植物体中的富集和毒害作用,减轻土壤污染状况;腐植酸作为一种有机生物肥料在农业生产中发挥作用,可以促进作物生长,增强作物抗逆性,改善农产品品质,提高化肥利用率,并改善耕作土壤结构,利于土壤中水、肥、气和热状况的调节,进而促进作物的根系发育,提高作物产量,实现农业可持续发展;在医药和石油工业领域方面,天然腐植酸具有止血、活血、抗菌、抗病毒、改善微循环、调节内分泌、提高免疫力等功效;腐植酸类钻井液产品也因其无环境污染、抗高温、阻垢性能高等特性逐渐受到欢迎。矿物源腐植酸在多种生产实践中得到应用且效果良好,但腐植酸基础产品种类偏少,不同地区来源和处理工艺对于腐植酸产品品质影响差异比较大,需要加强对矿源腐植酸的加工工艺、产品的理化特征、对土壤作用和生物作用效果等综合分析,因此腐植酸的区域化发展和复合化利用,特别是医疗方面的应用需要大力推进发展。微生物转化低阶煤炭资源生产腐植酸虽然具有工艺简单、低能耗、无污染等传统理化处理技术难以比拟的优点,但同时也存在微生物生长周期长和生产效率低等问题,进一步探究了解微生物作用于煤炭产生腐植酸的机理和调控途径是当前矿源腐植酸研究的重要方向。
Humic acid exists in nature widely,which is a kind of natural organic polymer compounds,and humic acid is abundant in the low rank coal such as lignite and weathering coal. In this paper,the resource reserve,regional distribution,species and properties of ore-humic acid was introducedin China. The traditional physical and chemical processing method of humic acid was compared with the microbiological method.Based on the research of microbial treatment of low rank coal in recent years,the microbial species(mainly actinomycetes,bacteria and fungi) and co-culture germs which can degrade low rank coal to produce humic acid were summarized. In addition,the extensive application of ore-humic acidwas described. As a kind of soil improver,humic acid can fix the heavy metal ions in the soil,absorb and promote the degradation of pesticides,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic matters,and reduce the enrichment and toxic effect of heavy metals in plants,and relieve the pollution of soil.As an organic biological fertilizer,humic acid also plays a role in agricultural production.It plays a great role in promoting crop growth,enhancing crop stress resistance,improving the quality of agricultural products,boosting the utilization rate of chemical fertilizer,increasing the structure of cultivated soil,and regulating the water,fertilizer,gas and heat conditions of the soil,promoting the root system development of crops,and increasing crop yield and achieving sustainable agricultural development.In the field of medicine and petroleum industry,ore-humic acid is also widely used. Natural humic acid has the functions of hemostasis,promoting blood circulation,antibacterial,antiviral,improving microcirculation,regulating endocrine,improving immunity,etc. Humic acid drilling fluid products are also gradually welcomed by petroleum enterprises because of their non-environmental pollution,resistances of high temperature and scale.Ore-humic acid has been applied in many kinds of production practices with good effect,but the basic products of humic acid are few,and the influence of source in different areas and treatment technology on the quality of products is quite different,so it is necessary to strengthen the comprehensive analysis of the processing technology of ore-humic acid,the physical and chemical characteristics of products,the effect on soil and biological effect and so on. The regional development and compound utilization of humic acid need to be vigorously promoted,especially medical application. The production of humic acid from low rank coal resources by microbial transformation has many advantagesthat the traditional physical and chemical treatment technology cannot compare,such as simple technology,low energy consumption,pollution-free and the like,but at the same time,there are also some problems for instance long growth cycle and low production efficiency. It is an important research direction to further research the mechanism and regulation way of humic acid produced by microbial action on low rank coal.

关键词(KeyWords): 褐煤;风化煤;矿源腐植酸;微生物
lignite;weathering coal;mineral-source humic acid;microorganism

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基金项目(Foundation): 徐州市政策引导类计划(科技合作)资助项目(KC18245)

作者(Author): 衡曦彤;程娟;何环;曹清河;李成果;
HENG Xitong;CHENG Juan;HE Huan;CAO Qinghe;LI Chengguo;School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,China University of Mining and Technology;Xuzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences;Xuzhou Kuaibang Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.;

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