洁净煤技术

2020, v.26;No.125(01) 213-220

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火电行业废水排放绩效评估
Performance evaluation of waste water discharge in thermal power

竹涛;袁前程;金鑫睿;叶泽甫;侯益铭;
ZHU Tao;YUAN Qiancheng;JIN Xinrui;YE Zefu;HOU Yiming;School of Chemical & Environmental Engineering,China University of Mining & Technology-Beijing;Shanxi Gemeng US-China Clean Energy R&D Center Co.,Ltd.;Gemeng International Energy Co.,Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

近年来我国大力开展排污许可制度,火电行业作为国民支柱产业和用水大户,在制度实施过程中,水污染物未受到重视,火电废水相关统计数据不清,排放绩效模糊,导致其难以纳入排污权交易体系。自2008年我国火力发电逐渐进入成熟期后,各省市火电企业用水自成熟期来形成了明显区域性特征,为按照《控制污染物排放许可制实施方案》要求更好地开展排污许可制度,笔者根据地区水资源情况,选取具有代表性的省份(山东和广东)着重分析火电废水现状,依据2015年全国各省环境统计数据,梳理所选地区火电行业水污染因子特征,首先明确了火电企业相关用水指标,火力发电厂需大量冷却水来冷却机组,冷却方式的差异决定了火电厂冷却水量的不同,根据3个指标确定企业的冷却技术;其次确定了主要有2种排放去向;之后比较水污染因子的处理效率,选取了特征水污染因子;最后进行全国火电行业废水绩效评估,包括废水排放总量绩效核算及主要水污染因子排放绩效核算,各地区可根据绩效核算结果对自身在火电行业的水资源使用及排放方面的问题制定针对性政策,旨在为火电废水排污许可制度的实施提供基础支持。结果表明,火电企业以电力为产品,水资源为生产消耗品,排放总量控制应基于废水的排放绩效。废水排放绩效评估及区域性特征研究目的是探究电力与废水排放之间联系,得出与所在区域的水文条件、发电效率以及冷却方式有关,水资源缺乏地区废水处理水平低于水资源丰富地区,会导致不良用水情况加剧,可制定出对应的废水治理政策,在排污权交易与废水处理设备资金投入上寻找平衡点。总结现阶段排污权交易存在的阻碍:火电行业的水污染物不受重视,导致排放量统计不够准确,为政策制定带来困难;互联网实时监测平台未建立,无法实时监测火电企业排放水质水量,采取污染源头追查方法,督促不达标企业整改,考虑优先通过排污权交易来推动水污染物的减排。废水排放绩效显示各地区情况相差较大。考虑到流域是废水排放的主要去向,以流域划分为基础。政府机构向绩效较高企业提出总量削减要求,绩效较低企业给予排污权交易优惠政策。
In recent years,the emission permit system is vigorously carried out in China. Thermal power industry,as a national pillar industry and a large water user,has not been paid much attention to water pollutants during the implementation of the system. The relevant statistical data of thermal power wastewater is unclear,and the discharge performance is vague,which makes it difficult to be included in the emission trading system. Since thermal power generation in China gradually entered the mature period in 2008,the water use for thermal power enterprises in various provinces and cities has formed the obvious regional features since the mature period. In order to better carry out discharge license system in accordance with the requirements of " control of pollutant discharge permit system implementation plan",based on the regional water resources situation,the typical provinces( Shandong and Guangdong) were choosed to emphatically analyze the present situation of coal waste water. According to the 2015 national provincial environmental statistics,the water pollution factor characteristics of the thermal power industry in selected region were sorted out. Firstly,the related water indicators of thermal power enterprises were defined. Thermal power plants need a large amount of cooling water to cool the unit. The difference in cooling methods determined the difference in cooling water amount of thermal power plants. The enterprise's cooling technology was determined according to the three indicators. Secondly,the two main types of discharge directionwere determined. Finally,the treatment efficiency of water pollution factors was compared. The characteristic water pollution factors were selected. The performance evaluation of thermal power industry wastewater was carried out,including wastewater emissions performance calculation and main water pollution discharge performance factor calculation.each region according to the performance calculation results of its own in the thermal power industry water use and emissions problems targeted policy,the implementation of the thermal power wastewater discharge permit system was dedicated to provide with basic support. The results show that the total emission control of thermal power enterprises should be based on the discharge performance of waste water The purpose of the wastewater discharge performance evaluation and regional characteristic research is to explore the association between power and waste water discharge,and hydrological conditions of the region,generation efficiency and cooling method. The level of wastewater treatment in water shortage areas below is lower than that in water resource area,which can lead to the aggravation of bad water.The corresponding wastewater treatment policies can be formulated to find a balance point between the emissions trading and investment balance on wastewater treatment equipment. The obstacles existing in emission trading at the present stage are summarized. The water pollutants in thermal power industry are not taken seriously,resulting in inaccurate emission statistics,which brings difficulties to formulate policy; The Internet real-time monitoring platform has not been established,so the water quality and quantity discharged by thermal power enterprises cannot be monitored in real time. The pollution source tracking method is adopted to urge the non-conforming enterprises to rectify and give priority to promoting the emission reduction of water pollutants through emission right trading. the wastewater discharge performance shows that the situation varies greatly among different regions. Considering that the drainage basin is the main source of wastewater discharge,it is based on the drainage basin division. Government agencies put forward total reduction requirements to enterprises with higher performance,and enterprises with lower performance were given preferential policies on emission trading.

关键词(KeyWords): 火电行业;水污染物;排放绩效;排污许可制度
thermal power industry;water pollutants;emission performance;sewage permit system

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基金项目(Foundation): 山西省科技重大专项资助项目(20181102017);; 中央引导地方科技发展专项资助项目(19943816G);; 中央高校基本科研业务专项基金资助项目(2009QH03)

作者(Author): 竹涛;袁前程;金鑫睿;叶泽甫;侯益铭;
ZHU Tao;YUAN Qiancheng;JIN Xinrui;YE Zefu;HOU Yiming;School of Chemical & Environmental Engineering,China University of Mining & Technology-Beijing;Shanxi Gemeng US-China Clean Energy R&D Center Co.,Ltd.;Gemeng International Energy Co.,Ltd.;

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