洁净煤技术

2020, v.26;No.125(01) 1-8

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螺旋分选机研究进展
Research progress of spiral separator

叶贵川;马力强;
YE Guichuan;MA Liqiang;College of Mining Engineering,Taiyuan Univerisity of Technology;School of Chemical and Environment Engineering,China University of Mining and Technology-Beijing;

摘要(Abstract):

螺旋分选机是一种传统的薄流膜分选设备,由于矿业、煤炭业的快速发展,以及当前固体废弃物处理的急迫需求,螺旋分选机以其能耗低、结构简单、效率高、运行成本低等优势受到重视。论述了螺旋分选机理论研究进展,包括螺旋分选机流场、螺旋分选过程以及螺旋分选机工艺优化及智能化调控研究进展;综述了煤用螺旋分选机分选特点及应用现状,介绍了螺旋分选机的新设计和新应用。螺旋分选机流场研究引入了一些新的测试手段,但目前还难以准确测量内缘薄流膜区域的纵向速度、径向速度分布情况;数值模拟方法为研究结构参数和操作参数对流场的影响规律提供了一种便利手段,但模拟精度还有待进一步提升。螺旋分选过程研究中,正电子发射型颗粒追踪技术用于检测颗粒在螺旋分选机中的运动规律,是螺旋分选机理论研究的一大突破;螺旋分选过程中颗粒运动行为的数值模拟为螺旋分选机理的定性分析提供了一种便捷的手段,但由于模拟过程中忽略了许多现实条件,导致模拟结果与试验结果仍有较大差距。螺旋分选机工艺优化及智能化调控研究目前还处于起步阶段。近年来,国内外相继开发了一批新型螺旋分选机,在降低分选密度方面取得了一定进展:南非MTI公司研发了一种低分选密度的螺旋分选机,产率降低4%左右时,分选密度可由1.61 g/cm~3降至1.54 g/cm~3;国内设计的一种超低距径比的复合槽面螺旋分选机(内缘立方抛物线、外缘椭圆型),在粗选阶段预排矸,分选密度可降低至1.543 g/cm~3,相较于采用传统参数的椭圆型槽面和立方抛物线槽面煤用螺旋分选机,在精煤灰分要求相当的情况下,分选效率分别提高了19.41%、13.11%。未来螺旋分选机研究重点主要还是利用PEPT技术、数值模拟技术等先进手段,进一步研究槽面形状、距径比(螺距直径之比)等结构参数对螺旋分选机流场分布特性、分选过程的影响,配合结构、工艺、新材料运用方面的改进,力争在提高分选精度、扩大分选密度调控范围方面有所突破。
Spiral separator is a kind of traditional thin flow membrane separation equipment. Due to the rapid development of mining and coal industry,as well as the urgent demand of solid waste treatment at present,spiral separator is paid attention to for its advantages of low energy consumption,simple structure,high efficiency and low operating cost. In this paper,the theoretical research progress of spiral separator was discussed,including the flow field,spiral separation process,process optimization and intelligent control of spiral separator,and the separation characteristics and application status of coal spiral separator were summarized,and the new design and application of spiral separator were introduced. For the research of flow field on the spiral separator,some new testing methods have been introduced. However,it is difficult to measure the distribution of the longitudinal velocity and radial velocity in the thin film area,especially in the inner edge at present. The numerical simulation provides a convenient method for studying the influence of structural parameters and operation parameters on the flow field,but the simulation accuracy needs to be further improved.In the research of the spiral separation process,the positron emission particle tracking technology is a breakthrough in the theoretical research of spiral separator,which is used to detect the movement of particles in the spiral separator. The numerical simulation of particle movement in the spiral separation process provides a convenient means for the qualitative analysis of the spiral separation mechanism. However,due to the neglect of many practical conditions in the simulation process,there is still a big gap between the simulation results and the test results. At present,the research on process optimization and intelligent control of spiral separator is still in its infancy. In recent years,a number of new spiral separators have been developed at home and abroad. Some progress has been made in reducing the separation density: MTI company in South Africa has developed a spiral separator with low separation density. When the production rate is reduced by about 4%,the separation density can be reduced from 1.61 g/cm~3 to 1.54 g/cm~3. Moreover,a kind of composite trough spiral separator with an ultra-low pitch to diameter ratio( inner edge cubic parabola,outer edge ellipsoid) has been designed in China. The separation density can be reduced to 1.543 g/cm~3 when the gangue is predischarged in the roughing stage. Compared with the spiral separator with the traditional parameters of an ellipse and cubic parabola,the separation efficiency of the composite trough spiral separator has been increased by 19.41% and 13.11% respectively when the ash content of clean coal is equivalent. In the future,the research focus of spiral separator is mainly to use advanced means,such as PEPT technology and numerical simulation technology,to further study the influence of structural parameters( groove shape,pitch diameter ratio,and other structural parameters) on the flow field distribution characteristics and separation process of spiral separator. Meanwhile,it is necessary to cooperate with the improvement in structure,technology,and application of new materials to improve the separation accuracy and to make a breakthrough in the scope of density control.

关键词(KeyWords): 螺旋分选机;研究进展;分选过程;流场分布
spiral separator;research progress;separation process;flow field distribution

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基金项目(Foundation): 北京市自然科学基金资助项目(2019105020023);; 山西省应用基础研究计划面上青年基金资助项目(201901D211034)

作者(Author): 叶贵川;马力强;
YE Guichuan;MA Liqiang;College of Mining Engineering,Taiyuan Univerisity of Technology;School of Chemical and Environment Engineering,China University of Mining and Technology-Beijing;

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