洁净煤技术

2019, (04) 8-13

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烟气脱硝尿素制氨工艺技术研究进展
Research progress of preparing ammonia technologies by urea in gas denitrification

罗峻;刘国军;
LUO Jun,LIU Guojun

摘要(Abstract):

燃煤和燃气电站的烟气必须进行脱硝处理,脱硝还原剂为液氨和尿素。由于液氨受到安全、地域等因素的限制,已被列为重大危险源,国内机组面临大量液氨的改造问题,尿素分解制氨技术代替液氨技术成为发展趋势。尿素直喷技术对温度要求严格,会造成尿素利用率极低,有时甚至不足50%,运行成本增加;尿素热解技术高温运行,能耗极高,引进气气换热技术后,热解炉尾端堵塞造成机组强制停炉、尿素利用率不高等问题仍无法解决;尿素普通水解技术能耗低,尿素利用率提高,但反应速度慢、响应时间长,无法满足机组快速变负荷中的供氨需求,制约了机组的灵活性运行和深度调峰,通过增大反应器体积以增加氨气缓存量、提高反应温度和反应速度,可基本满足现场需要,但增加了反应器尺寸,升温易使腐蚀加剧,进一步降低了尿素利用率。尿素直喷技术、尿素热解制氨技术、尿素普通水解技术均存在一定的缺点,新研发的低能耗尿素催化水解制氨技术大幅提高了反应速度,降低了运行温度,进而降低腐蚀,尿素利用率可达99%以上,减小体积和能耗,降低了运行成本,目前已应用于国内主要发电集团。
The flue gas of coal-fired and gas-fired power station after combustion must be processed by denitrification technology,the denitrification reducing agents are ammonia and urea.Because liquid ammonia is restricted by safety,region and other factors and has been listed as a major hazard source,domestic units are facing a large number of problems in the transformation of liquid ammonia.Urea decomposition ammonia production is becoming more and more popular.Direct injection of urea is too strict on temperature requirements,resulting in extremely low urea utilization rate,sometimes less than 50%,and increases operating costs.The pyrolysis of urea direct injection technology operates at a high temperature with extremely high energy consumption.After the introduction of gas-gas heat exchange technology,the problem of forced shutdown and low utilization rate of urea caused by blockage at the end of pyrolysis furnace is still unsolvable.Ordinary urea hydrolysis technology has low energy consumption and high utilization rate,but the reaction speed is slow and the response time is long,which can't meet the needs of ammonia supply in the unit's fast variable load,limiting the flexibility of the unit operation and the depth of peak shaving.Although late ordinary hydrolysis technology by increasing the reactor volume to increase the ammonia buffer capacity,reaction temperature and reaction speed,the needs of the scene can be basically met,but the size of the reactor is increased,and the temperature rise is easy to aggravate the corrosion and further reduces the utilization rate of urea.Urea direct injection technology,urea pyrolysis ammonia production technology and hydrolysis technology of urea all have certain shortcomings.The newly developed low-energy urea catalytic hydrolysis ammonia production technology greatly improves the response speed,lowers running temperature and reduce the corrosion.The urea utilization rate can reach more than 99%,reduces the volume and energy consumption,reduces the running cost.It has been applied in the main domestic power generation groups.

关键词(KeyWords): 烟气脱硝;尿素普通水解;尿素催化水解;尿素热解;尿素直喷;液氨;烟气热解
gas denitrification;hydrolysis of urea;catalytic-hydrolyzation of urea;urea pyrolysis;urea direct injection technology;liquid ammonia;gas pyrolysis

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作者(Author): 罗峻;刘国军;
LUO Jun,LIU Guojun

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