洁净煤技术

2021, v.27;No.132(02) 69-78

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碳酸酐酶固定及在二氧化碳捕集应用研究进展
Research progress on the immobilization of carbonic anhydrase and its application in carbon dioxide capture

于洋;刘琦;吕静;罗聃;彭勃;
YU Yang;LIU Qi;LYU Jing;LUO Dan;PENG Bo;Beijing Key Laboratory for Greenhouse Gas Storage and CO2-EOR,The Unconventional Petroleum Research Institute,China University of Petroleum-Beijing;College of New Energy and Materials,China University of Petroleum-Beijing;

摘要(Abstract):

化石燃料的使用是全球气候变暖的主要原因,二氧化碳捕集、利用及封存(CCUS)技术能够有效减少碳排放,缓解气候变化压力。化学吸收法是CO_2捕集的重要方法之一,具有分离效率高、成本低等优点,但存在解吸过程中消耗能量较多、长期使用造成设备腐蚀性等问题。利用碳酸酐酶(CA)强化化学方法吸收CO_2,可以提高CO_2吸收效率,有效解决传统工艺中的热能损失,逐渐成为CO_2捕集与封存研究中的热点。但CA自身热稳定性低、可重复性差,需对其进行固定化以提高稳定性和活性。重点介绍了CA的固定化方法及常用载体材料,总结了CA在强化CO_2捕集中的作用机理,讨论了其在CO_2捕集中的应用,并对该技术的未来发展方向作出了展望。固定化载体与方法会影响固定化酶的性质,故CA在固定化时要选择合适的载体与方法。CA固定化方法包括吸附法、包埋法、共价结合法和交联法4种,各有优劣,应根据酶所应用的领域来选择合适的固定化方法。常用固定化载体有天然高分子、无机载体材料等,选择时应综合考虑载体的理化性质和工业应用能力。CO_2捕集过程中,CA主要通过促进化学溶剂吸收CO_2和诱导CO_2矿化生成碳酸钙两方面强化捕集效率。未来研究方向应集中于开发具有更高活性和稳定性的新型CA、制备廉价高性能载体材料和进一步探究CA的内在因素和外界条件对其工业应用产生的阻碍。
The use of fossil fuels is the main cause of global warming. The technology of carbon capture,utilization and storage(CCUS) can effectively reduce carbon emissions and alleviate the pressure of climate change. Chemical absorption is one of the important methods of CO_2 capture,which has the advantages of high separation efficiency and low cost. But there are some problems,such as high energy consumption in the desorption process,long-term use of equipment corrosion and so on. The enhanced chemical absorption of CO_2 by carbonic anhydrase( CA) can improve the absorption efficiency and effectively solve the heat loss in the traditional process,which has gradually become a hot spot in the research of CCUS. However,CA has some disadvantages such as low thermal stability and poor repeatability,so it needs to be immobilized to improve its stability and activity. he immobilization methods and common carrier materials of CA were mainly introduced,the mechanism of CA in strengthening CO_2 capture was summarized,its application in CO_2 capture was discussed,and the development of this technology was looked forward to. The carrier and method of immobilization will affect the properties of immobilized enzyme,so the appropriate carrier and method should be selected during the immobilization of CA. CA immobilization methods include adsorption,embedding,covalent binding and cross-linking,and each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The appropriate immobilization method should be selected according to the field of enzyme application. The commonly used immobilized carriers are natural polymers,inorganic carrier materials and so on. The physical and chemical properties and industrial application ability of the carriers should be taken into account when selecting them. In the process of CO_2 capture,CA enhances the capture efficiency mainly by promoting the absorption of CO_2 by chemical solvents and inducing CO_2 mineralization to form calcium carbonate. The future research direction should focus on the development of novel CA with higher activity and stability,the preparation of cheap and high-performance carrier materials,and further explore the obstacles to the industrial application of CA caused by internal factors and external conditions.

关键词(KeyWords): CCUS;碳捕集;碳酸酐酶;固定化
CCUS;carbon capture;carbonic anhydrase;immobilization

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51604288);; 中国石油大学(北京)科研基金资助项目(ZX20200133)

作者(Author): 于洋;刘琦;吕静;罗聃;彭勃;
YU Yang;LIU Qi;LYU Jing;LUO Dan;PENG Bo;Beijing Key Laboratory for Greenhouse Gas Storage and CO2-EOR,The Unconventional Petroleum Research Institute,China University of Petroleum-Beijing;College of New Energy and Materials,China University of Petroleum-Beijing;

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DOI: 10.13226/j.issn.1006-6772.CCUS20100903

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